History of the Barony of North Cadbury, Somerset
Barony of North Cadbury Somerset
The Manor & Barony of North Cadbury
The Manor of North Cadbury was mentioned in Domesday Book of 1086 as held as part of the considerable Barony of Turstin FitzRolf. The Barony has a long and fascinating history and is kept alive by the current custodians, the 6th Baron and Baroness of North Cadbury, on behalf of the British Nation.
Map of North Cadbury
North Cadbury is a village 5 miles (8 km) WSW of Wincanton on the River Cam in the South Somerset district. The village has three landmarks: Cadbury House or North Cadbury Court dates back to 1300. It was rebuild to an Elizabethan Mansion by the third Earl of Huntingdon in the 1580's. The Church of St Michael the Archangel dates from 1417, but the Tower is build earlier in 1394. Both buildings are designated by English Heritage as Grade I listed buildings. The North Cadbury Hall Cottage dates to 1343 and is a Grade II* listed building.
North Cadbury (Cadeberie - Cada's Fort) takes its name from Cadbury Castle in South Cadbury and contains the eponymus village in the south, Galhampton village in the north, the dispersed hamlet of Woolston in the south-east, and a few scattered farmsteads and roadside cottages. In the fifth and sixth century Somerset lay in the Kingdom of Dumnonia and Cadbury means Cada's or Cado's Fort. In the time around King Arthur was born Cado was King of Dumnonia. There are evidence, also archaeologically that this site was an important military installation at that period. This Fort was built with massive stone walls and in the middle of the hilltop a great hall which was timber-framed. It was a very stately King's palace.
Myths & Legends of Cadbury in Somerset - A World full of Magic, Myths & Thruths
Cadbury Castle - formerly known as Camalet or also known as Camelot Castle has inspired storytellers and historians through the ages - sharing tales of magic, myth and mystery and historical facts. The Hill is a bronze and iron age hillfort in the civil parish of South Cadbury. It is a scheduled monument and associated with the legendary King Arthur. Legend has it that on midsummer's eve (23rd June) the hill turns clear as glass and inside can be seen King Arthur and his knights of the round table.
Prospect of Camalet Castle. 15.Aug.1723 hand-coloured engraving
"It is also be said by an ancient writer to have been one of the stations of the Round Table of King Arthur. The following account of this singular fraternity will be interesting to the reader: "This Round Table was kept at several places, especially at Caerleon in Monmouthshire, at Winchester, and at Camalet in Somersetshire."*
(*Source: THE HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES OF SOMERSETSHIRE; BEING A GENERAL AND PAROCHIAL SURVEY OF THAT INTERESTING COUNTY. VOL. I. By Rev. W. Phelps. London 1836)
The Round Table of King Arthur
Creation of the Barony about A.D. 1066
Where it all began ...
The Conquest of England and the Battle of Hastings
More than 950 years ago - England's future was fought in the decisive Battle of 1066. The Battle of Hastings took place on 14 October 1066, in the northwest of Hastings, near to the present-day town Battle in East Sussex.
Shortly before the combat at Hastings
Robert Wace (c. 1110 - after 1174) a Norman poet, wrote in his chronicle Roman de Rou:
"The Duke called for the standard which the Pope had sent him, and, he who bore it having unfolded it, the Duke took it and called to Raoul de Conches to bear his standard. But Raoul refused that he would serve the Duke that day in other guise, and would fight the English with his hand as long as life should last. Then the Duke bade Walter Giffard bear the standard. But he was old and white-headed, and bade the Duke give the standard to some younger and stronger man to carry. Then he called out a knight, whom he had heard much praised, Tosteins Fitz-Rou le Blanc by name, whose abode was at Bec-en-Caux. To him he delivered the standard, and Tosteins took it right cheerfully, and bowed low to him in thanks, and bore it gallantly and with good heart. His kindred still have quittance of all service for their inheritance on this account, and their heirs are entitled so to hold their inheritance forever."
The Norman-French army of Duke William II of Normandy and the English army under the Anglo-Saxon King Harold Godwinson fought against each other and was a decisive Norman victory. This was the beginning the Norman conquest of England. After this significant battle with the death of King Harold, the Norman victory and the conquest of England, William the Conqueror devolved all the lands into administration to his loyal barons and lords. William sent forces into London to construct a castle, the Tower of London. He was crowned at Westminster Abbey on Christmas Day 1066, as King William I. This battle and the Norman conquest has changed England forever.
Creation of the Barony & History until Today
The feudal Barony of North Cadbury was created shortly after the Norman conquest of England in about 1066. King William established the extensive Barony of (North) Cadbury (Cadeberie) and granted Tosteins Fitz-Rou le Blanc (Turstin FitzRolf), the first feudal Baron of (North) Cadbury, as tenant-in-chief per baroniam. The land was a gift to Turstin as he was a true companion of William, Duke of Normandy, alias William the Conqueror and he was his loyal standard bearer at the battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066.
For his loyalty, William gave Turstin FitzRolf in total 77 manors. William the Conqueror established his favoured followers as barons by enfeoffing them as tenant-in-chief with great fiefdoms. This was a largely standard feudal contract of tenure, common to all his barons. This means that Turstin was the first feudal Baron of North Cadbury. North Cadbury was the caput (seat) of these large land holdings, although Turstin's seat seems to have been at Caerleon Castle on the English border with Glamorgan, South Wales.
The land was a gift to Turstin as he was a true companion of William, Duke of Normandy, alias William the Conqueror and he was his loyal standard bearer at the battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066.
The Manor of (North) Cadbury or then Cadeberie formed part of the original and extensive Barony of Turstin FitzRolf. The Barony has been hereinafter termed as Barony of Wynebald, Newmarch or North Cadbury. This Barony had not only contained many large landholdings in the county of Somerset. There were furthermore many great landed properties in the nearby counties of Gloucestershire (Herefordshire, Worcestershire, Warwickshire), Buckinghamshire, Berkshire (Wiltshire), Dorset, Devon and Hampshire in the possessions of the early Barons.
In the Domesday Book of 1086 the Manor is recorded as held as part of the extensive fiefdom of Turstin FitzRolf. North Cadbury, together with South Cadbury, has been an estate village for most of its history. Recorded in the Domesday Book as Cadeberie, it was by far the largest settlement in South East Somerset at that time.
Domesday Book extract for North Cadbury, formerly Cadeberie (and adjacent landholdings of Turstin FitzRolf, as Weston Bampfylde and South Cadbury)
Turstin himself holds NORTH CADBURY. Alweald held it TRE and it paid geld for 12 hides. There is land for 12 ploughs. In demesne are 3 ploughs and 6 slaves; and 16 villans and 20 bordars with 8 ploughs, and 1 swineherd renders 12 pigs a year. There are 2 mills rendering 22s, and 50 acres of meadow, and 70 acres of pasture, [and] woodland 4 furlongs long and 1 furlong broad. It was worth 20l; now 12l. To this manor has been added WESTON BAMPFYLDE. Alwig held it TRE as a manor, and could go where he would, and it paid geld for 2 hides and 2½ virgates of land. In demesne are 1½ ploughs and 2 slaves; and 6 bordars with 1 plough. There is half a mill rendering 45d, and 24 acres of meadow, [and] woodland 2 furlongs long and 1 furlong broad. It was and is worth 40s. Richard holds it of Turstin. Alwine holds of Turstin WESTON BAMPFYLDE. He himself held it TRE and it paid geld for...
At that time the Barony of Cadeberie was also known as the Barony of Turstin FitzRolf. After Turstin, the Barony went over to Wynebald de Ballon, 2nd Baron in 1088.
Wynebald was a supporter of King William II. Wynebald's centre of operation was at Caerleon Castle. He served for a time as seneschal of Caerleon Castle. Heir to the barony of North Cadbury became his daughter Mabilia, the wife of a Henry de Newmarch. The Barony of Wynebald, also stated as the Barony of North Cadbury, inherited into the family of his son-in-law Henry de Newmarch, 3rd Baron of North Cadbury. Under the de Newmarch family the ancient baronial seat with all the landholdings became known as the Barony de (of) Newmarch and finally of North Cadbury.
It is historically known that James de Newmarch, 5th Baron of North Cadbury was a 'baronial loyalist' - a loyal Baron of King John during the rebellion of 1215-1217 in the First Barons' War, but it suggests that there were rebels among his tenants. He had no son but left two co-heiresses, Isabel and Hawise. After the death of James de Newmarch in 1216, the barony fell into moieties to his two daughters and is not to be joined and recorded again.
In 2011 the barony title has been conveyed to Jörg Hubert Dumke and his wife Regina, 6th Baron and Baroness of North Cadbury and obtain the title and hereditary rights of the Barony of North Cadbury.*
*The legal conveyance of the Lordship title has been approved and confirmed by three different UK Registered Solicitors (SRA).