History of the Barony
The Manor of North Cadbury was mentioned in Domesday Book of 1086 as held as part of the considerable Barony of Turstin FitzRolf. The Barony has a long and fascinating history and is kept alive by the current custodians, the 6th Baron and Baroness of North Cadbury, on behalf of the British Nation.
Map of North Cadbury
North Cadbury is a village 5 miles (8 km) WSW of Wincanton on the River Cam in the South Somerset district. The village has three landmarks: Cadbury House or North Cadbury Court dates back to 1300. It was rebuild to an Elizabethan Mansion by the third Earl of Huntingdon in the 1580's. The Church of St Michael the Archangel dates from 1417, but the Tower is build earlier in 1394. Both buildings are designated by English Heritage as Grade I listed buildings. The North Cadbury Hall Cottage dates to 1343 and is a Grade II* listed building.
North Cadbury (Cadeberie - Cada's Fort) takes its name from Cadbury Castle in South Cadbury and contains the eponymus village in the south, Galhampton village in the north, the dispersed hamlet of Woolston in the south-east, and a few scattered farmsteads and roadside cottages. In the fifth and sixth century Somerset lay in the Kingdom of Dumnonia and Cadbury means Cada's or Cado's Fort. In the time around King Arthur was born Cado was King of Dumnonia. There are evidence, also archaeologically that this site was an important military installation at that period. This Fort was built with massive stone walls and in the middle of the hilltop a great hall which was timber-framed. It was a very stately King's palace.
Cadbury Castle - formerly known as Camalet or also known as Camelot Castle has inspired storytellers and historians through the ages - sharing tales of magic, myth and mystery and historical facts. The Hill is a bronze and iron age hillfort in the civil parish of South Cadbury. It is a scheduled monument and associated with the legendary King Arthur. Legend has it that on midsummer's eve (23rd June) the hill turns clear as glass and inside can be seen King Arthur and his knights of the round table.
Prospect of Camalet Castle. 15.Aug.1723 hand-coloured engraving
"It is also be said by an ancient writer to have been one of the stations of the Round Table of King Arthur. The following account of this singular fraternity will be interesting to the reader: "This Round Table was kept at several places, especially at Caerleon in Monmouthshire, at Winchester, and at Camalet in Somersetshire."*
(*Source: THE HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES OF SOMERSETSHIRE; BEING A GENERAL AND PAROCHIAL SURVEY OF THAT INTERESTING COUNTY. VOL. I. By Rev. W. Phelps. London 1836)
The Round Table of King Arthur
Where it all began ...
The Conquest of England and the Battle of Hastings
More than 950 years ago - England's future was fought in the decisive Battle of 1066. The Battle of Hastings took place on 14 October 1066, in the northwest of Hastings, near to the present-day town Battle in East Sussex.
Shortly before the combat at Hastings
Robert Wace (c. 1110 - after 1174) a Norman poet, wrote in his chronicle Roman de Rou:
"The Duke called for the standard which the Pope had sent him, and, he who bore it having unfolded it, the Duke took it and called to Raoul de Conches to bear his standard. But Raoul refused that he would serve the Duke that day in other guise, and would fight the English with his hand as long as life should last. Then the Duke bade Walter Giffard bear the standard. But he was old and white-headed, and bade the Duke give the standard to some younger and stronger man to carry. Then he called out a knight, whom he had heard much praised, Tosteins Fitz-Rou le Blanc by name, whose abode was at Bec-en-Caux. To him he delivered the standard, and Tosteins took it right cheerfully, and bowed low to him in thanks, and bore it gallantly and with good heart. His kindred still have quittance of all service for their inheritance on this account, and their heirs are entitled so to hold their inheritance forever."
The Norman-French army of Duke William II of Normandy and the English army under the Anglo-Saxon King Harold Godwinson fought against each other and was a decisive Norman victory. This was the beginning the Norman conquest of England. After this significant battle with the death of King Harold, the Norman victory and the conquest of England, William the Conqueror devolved all the lands into administration to his loyal barons and lords. William sent forces into London to construct a castle, the Tower of London. He was crowned at Westminster Abbey on Christmas Day 1066, as King William I. This battle and the Norman conquest has changed England forever.
Creation of the Barony around 1066
The feudal Barony of North Cadbury was created shortly after the Norman conquest of England in about 1066. King William established the extensive Barony of (North) Cadbury (Cadeberie) and granted Tosteins Fitz-Rou le Blanc (Turstin FitzRolf), the first feudal Baron of (North) Cadbury, as tenant-in-chief per baroniam. The land was a gift to Turstin as he was a true companion of William, Duke of Normandy, alias William the Conqueror and he was his loyal standard bearer at the battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066.
In the Domesday Book of 1086 the manor is recorded as held as part of the extensive fiefdom of Turstin FitzRolf. At that time the Barony of Cadeberie was also known as the Barony of Turstin FitzRolf. After Turstin, the Barony went over to Wynebald de Ballon and was then named Barony of Wynebald. Under the de Newmarch family the ancient baronial seat with all the landholdings became known as the Barony de (of) Newmarch and finally of North Cadbury. Therewith the Barony of North Cadbury is one of the oldest feudal baronies of England, which exists again today.
1066 shortly after the Norman Conquest of England, the Manor of (North) Cadbury or then Cadeberie formed part of the original and extensive Barony of Turstin FitzRolf. The Barony has been hereinafter termed as Barony of Wynebald, Newmarch or North Cadbury. This Barony had not only contained many large landholdings in the county of Somerset. There were furthermore many great landed properties in the nearby counties of Gloucestershire (Herefordshire, Worcestershire, Warwickshire), Buckinghamshire, Berkshire (Wiltshire),Dorset, Devon and Hampshire in the possessions of the early Barons.
1066 Turstin FitzRolf (Tosteins Fitz-Rou le Blanc; Turstin from the Old Norse name Torsteins meaning Thor's stone) was the standard-bearer of William the Conqueror at the battle of Hastings and he held the land from the King under feudal tenure as tenant-in-chief per baroniam. For his loyalty, William gave Turstin FitzRolf in total 77 manors. William the Conqueror established his favoured followers as barons by enfeoffing them as tenant-in-chief with great fiefdoms. This was a largely standard feudal contract of tenure, common to all his barons. This means that Turstin was the first feudal Baron of North Cadbury. North Cadbury was the caput (seat) of these large land holdings, although Turstin's seat seems to have been at Caerleon Castle on the English border with Glamorgan, South Wales.
1086 Domesday Book: The Manor of North Cadbury is recorded as held as part of the extensive fiefdom of Turstin FitzRolf. North Cadbury, together with South Cadbury, has been an estate village for most of its history. Recorded in the Domesday Book as Cadeberie, it was by far the largest settlement in South East Somerset at that time.
Domesday Book extract for the Barony of (North) Cadbury and adjacent landholdings of Turstin FitzRolf, as Weston Bampfylde and South Cadbury.
1088 Turstin FitzRolf, 1st Baron of Cadeberie has been banished. He has possibly opposed against King William II (William Rufus) of England in his struggle for the English crown with his elder brother Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy. Turstin has married sometimes before 1086 Agnes de Merleberga (Agnes of Marlborough - daughter of Alfred of Marlborough). It is said that they have had a son named Ralph (FitzTurstin) who went on crusade to the Holy Land, where he died. The lands which builded the feudal barony, did not pass to his son, but to another apparently unrelated Norman magnate Wynebald de Ballon, who served for a time as seneschal of Caerleon Castle.
1088 Wynebald de Ballon, 2nd Baron of Wynebald received this fiefdom. Wynebald also inherited, almost intact, the lands comprising Turstin's fief, which is known collectively as the barony of North Cadbury. He arrived in England with his brother Hamelin de Ballon from Maine, France. Wynebald was a supporter of King William II. Wynebald's centre of operation was at Caerleon Castle. Further up the river Usk was the caput of the great Marcher Lordship of Bernhard de Newmarch at Brecon. He was possibly descended from Bernhard de Newmarch Marcher Lord of Brecon. By his wife Elizabeth, Wynebald de Ballon had have two sons. Roger and Milo, and one daughter, Mabilia. Roger, the elder son, died in about 1126. He had married Hawise de Gournay, by whom he had three sons, Roger, Hamelin and Arnold, all of whom died without issue before 1166. Heir to the Barony became his daughter Mabilia, the wife of a Henry de Newmarch. The Barony of Wynebald, also stated as the Barony of North Cadbury, inherited into the family of his son-in-law Henry de Newmarch or Newmarket.
1126 Henry de Newmarch, 3rd Baron of North Cadbury had two sons: Henry (or William) and James.
1198 Henry de Newmarch, 4th Baron of North Cadbury, the eldest son who died without issue in 1204 and his heir was his brother James who married Maud.
1204 James de Newmarch, 5th Baron of North Cadbury had no son but but two daughters: Isabel and Hawise. James himself was a 'baronial loyalist' - a loyal Baron of King John during the rebellion of 1215-1217 in the First Baron's War, but it suggests that there were rebels among his tenants.
1216 James de Newmarch died, the Barony fell into moieties to his daughters and the Barony title was dormant. The shares of the daughters fell to Sir John Russell, Kt. (1224), the Barons Moels (1230), Barons Botreaux (1337), Barons Hungerford (1462) and to the Barons Hastings (1468).
After the death of James de Newmarch in 1216 the Barony has lain dormant for 795 years and has been re-conveyed in 2011.
2011 Jörg Hubert Dumke and his wife Regina, 6th Baron and Baroness of North Cadbury obtain the title and hereditary rights of the Barony of North Cadbury.