BARONY of  NORTH CADBURY                                                                                                SOMERSET   ·   ENGLAND                                                                                                                    Erected by King William I. about AD 1066                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           'Keeping history alive'                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

  HISTORY & LIBRARY


 

 

 

Map of Somersetshire by H. Moll 1724

The Manor of North Cadbury was mentioned in Domesday Book of 1086 as held as part of the considerable Barony of Turstin FitzRolf. The Barony has a long and fascinating history and is kept alive by the current custodians on behalf of the British Nation.

 

 Map of North Cadbury

North Cadbury is a village 5 miles (8 km) WSW of Wincanton on the River Cam in the South Somerset district.                                                                                                                                             The village has three landmarks: Cadbury House or North Cadbury Court dates back to 1300. It was rebuild to an Elizabethan Mansion by the third Earl of Huntingdon in the 1580's.                  The Church of St Michael the Archangel dates from 1417, but the Tower is build earlier in 1394. Both buildings are designated by English Heritage as Grade I listed buildings.  The North Cadbury Hall Cottage dates to 1343 and is a Grade II* listed building. 

Cadbury House or North Cadbury Court 1836


Cadbury Castle in South Cadbury

North Cadbury (Cadeberie - Cada's Fort) takes its name from Cadbury Castle in South Cadbury and contains the eponymus village in the south, Galhampton village in the north, the dispersed hamlet of Woolston in the south-east, and a few scattered farmsteads and roadside cottages. In the fifth and sixth century Somerset lay in the Kingdom of Dumnonia and Cadbury means Cada's or Cado's Fort. In the time around King Arthur was born Cado was King of Dumnonia. There are evidence, also archaeologically that this site was an important military installation at that period.  This Fort was built with massive stone walls and in the middle of the hilltop a great hall which was timber-framed. It was a very stately King's palace.                                                                          Cadbury Castle is also known as Camelot Castle and is a bronze and iron age hillfort in the civil parish of South Cadbury. It is a scheduled monument and associated with the legendary King Arthur. Legend has it that on midsummer's eve (23rd June) the hill turns clear as glass and inside can be seen King Arthur and his knights of the round table.   
 

  Prospect of Camalet Castle. 15.Aug.1723    hand-coloured engraving                     

"It is also be said by an ancient writer to have been one of the stations of the Round Table of King Arthur. The following account of this singular fraternity will be interesting to the reader: "This Round Table was kept at several places, especially at Caerleon in Monmouthshire, at Winchester, and at Camalet in Somersetshire."*

(*Source: THE HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES OF SOMERSETSHIRE; BEING A GENERAL AND PAROCHIAL SURVEY OF THAT INTERESTING COUNTY. VOL. I. By Rev. W. Phelps. London 1836)


                                                         The Round Table of King Arthur 



Gustave Doré’s illustration of Camelot from “Idylls of the King”, 1868


           

 

                                                                          Where it all began ...

                                          The Conquest of England and the Battle of Hastings

 

More than 950 years ago - England's future was fought in the decisive Battle of 1066. The Battle of Hastings took place on 14 October 1066, in the northwest of Hastings, near to the present-day town Battle in East Sussex.         

                                                 Shortly before the combat at Hastings

Robert Wace (c. 1110 - after 1174) a Norman poet, wrote in his chronicle Roman de Rou:

"The Duke called for the standard which the Pope had sent him, and, he who bore it having unfolded it, the Duke took it and called to Raoul de Conches to bear his standard. But Raoul refused that he would serve the Duke that day in other guise, and would fight the English with his hand as long as life should last. Then the Duke bade Walter Giffard bear the standard. But he was old and white-headed, and bade the Duke give the standard to some younger and stronger man to carry. Then he called out a knight, whom he had heard much praised, Tosteins Fitz-Rou le Blanc by name, whose abode was at Bec-en-Caux. To him he delivered the standard, and Tosteins took it right cheerfully, and bowed low to him in thanks, and bore it gallantly and with good heart. His kindred still have quittance of all service for their inheritance on this account, and their heirs are entitled so to hold their inheritance forever."                     

The Norman-French army of Duke William II of Normandy and the English army under the Anglo-Saxon King Harold Godwinson fought against each other and was a decisive Norman victory. This was the beginning the Norman conquest of England. After this significant battle with the death of King Harold, the Norman victory and the conquest of England, William the Conqueror devolved all the lands into administration to his loyal barons and lords.                                                                        William sent forces into London to construct a castle, the Tower of London. He was crowned at Westminster Abbey on Christmas Day 1066, as King William I.                                                                  This battle and the Norman conquest has changed England forever.                                                               


                  Creation of the Barony around 1066                                                       

Turstin FitzRolf possibly. Scene from the Bayeux Tapestry.

The feudal Barony of North Cadbury was created shortly after the Norman conquest of England in about 1066.          King William established the extensive Barony of (North) Cadbury (Cadeberie) and granted Tosteins Fitz-Rou le Blanc (Turstin FitzRolf), the first feudal Baron of (North) Cadbury, as tenant-in-chief per baroniam. The land was a gift to Turstin as he was a true companion of William, Duke of Normandy, alias William the Conqueror and he was his loyal standard bearer at the battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066.
In Domesday Book of 1086 the manor is recorded as held as part of the extensive fiefdom of Turstin FitzRolf. At that time the Barony of Cadeberie was also known as the Barony of Turstin FitzRolf. After Turstin, the Barony went over to Wynebald de Ballon and was then named Barony of Wynebald. Under the de Newmarch family the ancient baronial seat with all the landholdings became known as the Barony of Newmarch and finally North Cadbury.    Therewith the Barony of North Cadbury is one of the oldest feudal baronies of England, which exists again today.            


 


    

1066 shortly after the Norman Conquest of England, the Manor of (North) Cadbury or then Cadeberie formed part of the original and extensive Barony of Turstin FitzRolf. The Barony has been hereinafter termed as Barony of Wynebald, Newmarch or North Cadbury.                         This Barony had not only contained many large landholdings in the county of Somerset. There were furthermore many great landed properties in the nearby counties of Gloucestershire (Herefordshire, Worcestershire, Warwickshire), Buckinghamshire, Berkshire(Wiltshire), Dorset, Devon and Hampshire in the possessions of the early Barons.

1066 Turstin FitzRolf (Tosteins Fitz-Rou le Blanc; Turstin from the Old Norse name Torsteins meaning Thor's stone) was the standard-bearer of William the Conqueror at the battle of Hastings and he held the land from the King under feudal tenure as tenant-in-chief per baroniam. For his loyalty, William gave Turstin FitzRolf in total 77 manors. William the Conqueror established his favoured followers as barons by enfeoffing them as tenant-in-chief with great fiefdoms. This was  a largely standard feudal contract of tenure, common to all his barons.                                                                                                                                                            This means that Turstin was the first feudal Baron of North Cadbury. North Cadbury was the caput (seat) of these large land holdings, although Turstin's central area of operation seems to have been around Caerleon Castle on the English border with Glamorgan, South Wales.
The English Benedictine monk and chronicler Orderic Vitalis (1075-1145) wrote in The Historia Ecclesiastica, the greatest English social history of the Middle Ages sometime around 1110: "Turstinus filius Rollonis vexillum Normannorum portavit" - Turstin son of Rollo carried the standard of the Normans.

1086 Domesday Book: The Manor of North Cadbury is recorded as held as part of the extensive fiefdom of Turstin FitzRolf. North Cadbury, together with South Cadbury, has been an estate village for most of its history. Recorded in Domesday Book as Cadeberie, it was by far the largest settlement in South East Somerset at that time.                                

                   Domesday Book extract for the Barony of (North) Cadbury and adjacent landholdings of Turstin FitzRolf,                                            as Weston Bampfylde and South Cadbury     

1088 Turstin FitzRolf, 1st Baron of Cadeberie has been banished. He has possibly opposed against King William II (William Rufus) of England in his struggle for the English crown with his elder brother Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy. Turstin has married sometimes before 1086 Agnes de Merleberga (Agnes of  Marlborough - daughter of Alfred of Marlborough). It is said that they have had a son named Ralph (FitzTurstin) who went on crusade  to the Holy Land, where he died. The lands which builded the feudal barony, did not pass to his son, but to another apparently unrelated Norman magnate Wynebald de Ballon, who served for a time as seneschal of Caerleon Castle.        

1088 Wynebald de Ballon, 2nd Baron of Wynebald received this fiefdom. Wynebald also inherited, almost intact, the lands comprising Turstin's fief, which is known collectively as the barony of North Cadbury. He arrived in England with his brother Hamelin de Ballon from Maine, France.                                                                                                                                                     Wynebald was a supporter of King William II. Wynebald's centre of operation was at Caerleon Castle. Further up the river Usk was the caput of the great Marcher Lordship of Bernhard de Newmarch at Brecon. He was possibly descended from Bernhard de Newmarch Marcher Lord of Brecon.  By his wife Elizabeth, Wynebald de Ballon had have two sons. Roger and Milo, and one daughter, Mabilia. Roger, the elder son, died in about 1126. He had married Hawise de Gournay, by whom he had three sons, Roger, Hamelin and Arnold, all of whom died without issue before 1166. Heir to the Barony became his daughter Mabilia, the wife of a Henry de Newmarch. The Barony of Wynebald, also stated as the Barony of North Cadbury, inherited into the family of his son-in-law Henry de Newmarch or Newmarket.

1126 Henry de Newmarch, 3rd Baron of North Cadbury had two sons: Henry (or William) and James.  

1198 Henry de Newmarch, 4th Baron of North Cadbury, the eldest son who died without issue in 1204 and his heir was his brother James who married Maud.  

1204 James de Newmarch, 5th Baron of North Cadbury had no son but but two daughters: Isabel and Hawise.

1216 James de Newmarch died, the Barony fell into moieties to his daughters and the Barony title was dormant. The shares of the daughters fell to Sir John Russell, Kt. (1224), the Barons Moels (1230), Barons Botreaux (1337), Barons Hungerford (1462) and to the Barons Hastings (1468).         

                   After the death of James de Newmarch in 1216 the Barony has lain dormant                                                                  for 795 years and has been re-conveyed in 2011.            

2011 Jörg Hubert Dumke and his wife Regina, 6th Baron and Baroness of North Cadbury obtain the rights and title of the Barony.