BARONY of  NORTH CADBURY                                                                                                SOMERSET   ·   ENGLAND                                                                                                                    Erected by King William I. about AD 1066                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           'Keeping history alive'                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                        THE BRITISH TITLES SYSTEM


                                      TITLES OF PRECEDENCE AND DIGNITY                                                                        of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland                              


                                                                         The Sovereign            

                                                                Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II.   


                                                                    The Queen's Consort            

                                       His Royal Highness Prince Philip, The Duke of Edinburgh                                           

                                     Prince Philip retired from his royal duties on 2 August 2017 at the age of 96.                


                                                       The Heir-Apparent to the Crown  

                                        His Royal Highness Prince Charles, The Prince of Wales 


The Lords Spiritual

The Archbishop of Canterbury is the first peer of England,                                                                                    The Archbishop of York,                                                                                                                                       The Bishops of London, Durham and Winchester (and another 21).                                                                 The normal form of address is 'Your Grace'/ 'My Lord.

Duke / Duchess
created in 1337, highest rank of the peerage. In the United Kingdom addressed as 'My Lord' or 'Your Grace'/ 'My Lady' or 'Madam'.

Marquess / Marchioness
created in 1385, in the United Kingdom the title ranks below a duke and above an earl. The normal form of address is 'My Lord' or 'Your Grace'/ 'My Lady' (or 'Madam').       

Earl / Countess
first earls in England were created in 1017. The Norman kings adopted the Saxon title. The first earls created were dignitaries of enormous power. The normal form of address is Lord / Lady or 'My Lord'/ 'My Lady'. 

Viscount / Viscountess
created in 1440, rank in peerage below an Earl, above a Baron. Formerly it was a the title of the Sheriff of a County. In the reign of Henry VI. the title became a degree of honour and was made hereditary. The normal form of address is Lord / Lady or 'My Lord'/ 'My Lady' (or 'Madam')

Baron / Baroness
created c.1066, lowest rank of the peerage. Barons were introduced into England by the Normans, most of whom held that rank in Normandy before the Conquest. Baron meant literally a man, being the King's tenant-in-chief, i.e. holding his land directly from the King per baroniam and giving the owner, wether by inheritance or by acquisition, a bundle of land, minerals and other rights, including certain rights of public justice and privileges. In the 13th century they were summoned to Parliament. The Baronage emerged into an hereditary dignity of the peerage. The normal form of address is Lord/ Lady or  'My Lord'/ 'My Lady' (or 'Madam').

Life Baron / Life Baroness (by writ)                                                                                                                     lowest rank of the peerage. Life peerages had been granted for centuries, usually to women, until the Life Peerage Act of 1958 allowed the regular creation of non-hereditary peerages. A life peerage offers all of the privileges of a hereditary degree to the  recipient, including a seat in the House of Lords. The most significant differences being that  whose titles cannot be inherited, as contrasted to hereditary Lords. Almost all of the life peerages granted under the Act have been baronies. The normal form of address is Lord / Lady or  'My Lord'/ 'My Lady' (or 'Madam')

Baronet / Baronetess
created in 1611, a hereditary title above a Knight and below a Baron.
A Baronet (trad. abbreviation Bart, modern abbreviation Bt, after the name) or the rare female equivalent, a baronetess (abbreviation Btss), is the holder of a hereditary baronetcy awarded by the British Crown. The practice of awarding baronetcies was originally introduced in England in the 1300s and was used by James I of England  in 1611 in order to raise funds for the suppression of the rebellion in Ulster. A baronetcy is the only hereditary honour which is not a peerage. A baronet is styled "Sir" like a knight (or "Dame" for a baronetess), but ranks above all knighthoods and damehoods except for the Order of the Garter and, in Scotland, the Order of the Thistle However, the baronetage, as a class, are considered members of the gentry and rank above the knightage. A Baronet is not a noble title or knighthood, although they are members of the aristocracy. The normal form of address is 'Sir'/ 'My Lady' (or 'Madam')

Knight / Dame                                                                                                                                               Knighthood is essentially an institution of the days of chivalry. The title of knight was desired and granted as an honourable addition or mark of distinction to the highest dignity, name and rank.          A knight is entitled to use the prefix 'Sir'/ 'Dame' with the orders letters after the name. The wife of a knight is entitled to use the prefix 'Lady'.

Lord of the Manor / Lady of the Manor                                                                                                                    The Lordship of the Manor is one of the oldest titles in England. In English society, the Lordship of a Manor is a lordship originating in the feudal system of manorialism. In modern England and Wales it is recognised as a form of property. Historically a lord of the manor might be a tenant-in-chief if he held a capital manor directly from the Crown; otherwise he was a mesne lord if he did not hold directly from the Crown, yet had his own tenants. The origins of the lordship of manors arose in the Anglo-Saxon system of manorialism. Following the Norman Conquest, land at the manorial level was recorded in the Domesday book of 1086. The normal form of address is Lord / Lady.

Lord / Lady                                                                                                                                                                                   is not only a title, it is also the form to address a marquess (marchioness), an earl (countess), a viscount (vicountess), a baron (baroness), a Lord or Lady of the manor, a youngster son of a duke or marquess, a judge and or a bishop.


The titles will distinguished in two distinct groups:      


                                                       I. Titles of the British Peerage                                             

               II. Titles of the British Manorial and Feudal System   



           Titles of the British Peerage         

                            The Peerage of the United Kingdom of Great Britain                                                                                               and Northern Ireland                                                                                                    (Parliamentary Titles)                             


Aerial View of the Houses of Parliament and Buckingham Palace 1970's

The modern peerage system is a continuation and renaming of the baronage which existed in feudal times. The requirement of attending Parliament was at once a liability and a privilege for those who held land as a tenant-in-chief of the king per baroniam, that is to say under the feudal contract of being one of the king's barons, responsible for raising knights and troops for the royal feudal army. Certain other classes such as the higher clerics and freemen of the Cinque Ports were deemed barons. This right, entitlement or "title", began to be granted by decree in the form of the writ of summons from 1265 and by letters patent from 1388. Additionally, many holders of smaller fiefdoms per baroniam ceased to be summoned to parliament. As a result of this, the barony started to become personal rather than territorial. Feudal baronies had always been hereditable by an eldest son under primogeniture, but on condition of payment of a fine, termed relief, derived from the Latin verb levo to lift up, meaning a "re-elevation" to a former position of honour. Baronies and other titles of nobility became unconditionally hereditable on the abolition of feudal tenure by the Tenures Abolition Act of 1660, and non-hereditable titles began to be created in 1876 for law lords, and in 1958 for life peers.                                                                        Today the Peerage is the collective of all the Lords of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland or persons raised in class to be considered "Peers of the Monarch". These Lords have a seat in the House of Lords (or referred to ceremonially as the House of Peers) - the Upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.                                                                                      They are assigned by the Crown and cannot be transferred. The candidates are primarily selected by Government. Peers appointed today are either Working Peers and get a seat in the House of Lords or Non-Working and merely receive the Honour.


                                                                  Titles of the Peerage   

  • Lords Spiritual
  • Duke
  • Marquess
  • Earl
  • Viscount
  • Baron
  • Life Baron

                                                                                                                                                                            Until recently, the Peerage could be easily defined as those who held a seat in the House of Lords (part of the Parliamentary system in Britain). Today the most of the hereditary Peers have been removed from the House under recent reforms.


         A Privilege of the Peerage - Robes and Coronets     

Since the early Middle Ages, robes have been worn as a sign of nobility. At first, these seem to have been bestowed on individuals by the monarch or feudal lord as a sign of special recognition; but in the fifteenth century the use of robes became formalised with peers all wearing robes of the same design, though varied according to the rank of the wearer.

Two distinct forms of robes emerged, and these remain in current use:  

1. the Parliamentary Robe is worn for parliamentary occasions (such at the State Opening of Parliament),                                                                                                                                                                 

2. the Coronation Robe is generally worn only at Coronations. (Formerly, new peers were invested with their coronation robe by the monarch, but this Investiture ceremony has not taken place since 1621.)

Coronets are worn with the Coronation robe. The robes and coronets used at Elizabeth II's coronation in 1953 cost about £1,250  (roughly £29.6,000 in present-day terms). Peers under the rank of an Earl, however, were allowed in 1953 to wear a cheaper "cap of estate" in place of a coronet, as were peeresses of the same rank, for whom a simpler robe was also permitted (a one-piece gown with wrap-around fur cape, designed by Norman Hartnell).








Hereditary titles are those that pass from one generation to the next, usually in direct succession.  Dukes, Marquesses, Earls, Viscounts, Barons, and Baronets (Baronets are not part of the Peerage, but as that they are hereditary titles) are usually hereditary in nature. The way they pass from one member of the family, usually from the eldes son, to the next is all dependent upon how the titles were originally granted.



        Titles of the British Manorial and Feudal System        

                                      The Feudal Lords and Barons of the United Kingdom                                                                                                     of Great Britain and Northern Ireland                                                                                                                  (Gentry - 'Squirearchy')                                                              


These titles come from the Manorial and Feudal System which preceded the Peerage and still continue today. The first Lords in the House of Lords came from the Feudal Barons and Earls that managed the people and land across the country. 

Most of the rights of these title holders have been lost due to their creation or lain dormant so long ago, mostly 1066 at the time of the William the Conqueror (King William I.), but some can date back hundreds of years before.                  


       William the Conqueror, 1066


Feudal Hierachy & Obligations



                             Titles of the Manorial and Feudal System                             

  • Earl (a feudal Earldom, like a Manor title vested in property)
  • Baron (the highest degree of feudal land tenure in 1066)
  • Lord of the Manor (one of the oldest titles in England)                                        

                                                                                                                                                                             Most Lordships were granted between 1066 and 1086 and were named then. Each Lord could change the name of the Lordship (and the title) in the same way as we can change the name of a house today.                                                                                                                   


In Anglo-Saxon England, feudal earls had authority over their own regions and right of judgment in provincial courts, as delegated by the king. They collected fines and taxes and in return received a "third penny", one-third of the money they collected. In wartime they led the king's armies. Some shires were grouped together into larger units known as earldoms, headed by an ealdorman or earl. Under Edward the Confessor earldoms like Wessex, Mercia, East Anglia and Northumbria - names that represented earlier independent kingdoms  -  were much larger than any shire. The Earls originally functioned essentially as royal governors. Though the title of Earl was nominally equal to the continental duke, unlike them earls were not de facto rulers in their own right.                                                                                                                     After the Norman Conquest, William the Conqueror tried to rule England using the traditional system but eventually modified it to his own liking. Shires became the largest secular subdivision in England and earldoms disappeared. The Normans did create new earls like those of Herefordshire, Shropshire, and Cheshire but they were associated with only a single shire at most. Their power and regional jurisdiction was limited to that of the Norman counts. There was no longer any administrative layer larger than the shire, and shires became "counties". Earls no longer aided in tax collection or made decisions in country courts and their numbers were small. King Stephen increased the number of earls to reward those loyal to him in his war with his cousin Empress Mathilda. He gave some earls the right to hold royal castles or control the sheriff and soon other earls assumed these rights themselves. By the end of his reign, some earls held courts of their own and even minted their own coins, against the wishes of the king.                                     It fell to Stephen's successor Henry II to again curtail the power of earls. He took back the control of royal castles and even demolished castles that earls had built for themselves. He did not create new earls or earldoms. No earl was allowed to remain independent of royal control.                     The English kings had found it dangerous to give additional power to an already powerful aristocracy, so gradually sheriffs assumed the governing role. The details of this transition remain obscure, since earls in more peripheral areas, such as the Scottish Marshes and Welsh Marshes and Cornwall, retained some viceregal powers long after other earls had lost them. The loosening of central authority during the Anarchy also complicates any smooth description of the change over.                                                                                                                                                                      By the 13th century, earls had a social rank just below the king and princes, but were not necessarily more powerful or wealthier than other noblemen. The only way to become an earl was to inherit the title or marry into one - and the king reserved a right to prevent the transfer of the title. By the 14th century, creating an earl included a special public ceremony where the king personally tied a sword belt around the waist of the new earl, emphasizing the fact that the earl's rights came from him.                                                                                                                                     Earls still held influence and as "companions of the king", were regarded as supporters of the king's power. They showed that power for the first time in 1327 when they deposed Edward II. They would later do the same with other kings they disapproved of. Still, the number of earls remained the same until 1337 when Edward III declared that he intended to create six new earldoms.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Baron                                                                                                                                                               

Barons were introduced into England by the Normans; most of whom held that rank in Normandy before the Conquest. Baron literally meant a man, holding his land directly from the King per baroniam as a tenant-in-chief. William the Conqueror established his favoured followers as barons by enfeoffing them as tenants-in-chief with great fiefdom a largely standard feudal contract of tenure, common to all his barons.

A feudal Barony or Barony by tenure was the highest degree of feudal land tenure, namely per baroniam (Latin for "by barony" or "as a baron") under which the land-holder owed the service of being one of the king's barons. Such barons were selected often on account of their personal abilities and usefulness. Thus for example Turstin FitzRolf, the relatively humble and obscure knight who had stepped in at the last minute to accept the position of Duke William's standard-bearer at the Battle of Hastings, was granted a barony which comprised well over twenty manors.                                                                                            Lands forming a Barony were often located in several different counties, not necessarily adjoining. The name of such a Barony is generally deemed to be the name of the chief manor within it, known as the caput, Latin for "head", generally assumed to have been the seat or chief residence of the first baron. North Cadbury, for instance, the ancient baronial seat of  Turstin FitzRolf ('Cadeberie' in his time), became known as the Barony of (North) Cadbury, Somerset.                                                                    The exact date of creation of most feudal Baronies cannot be determined, as their founding charters or any deeds have been lost. Many of them are first recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086.                                                                                                                                                                   The duties owed by and the privileges granted to feudal barons cannot now be defined exactly, but they involved the duty of providing soldiers to the royal feudal army on demand by the king, and the privilege of attendance at the king's feudal court, the precursor of parliament.


King John of England signs the Magna Carta

In the 13th century they were summoned to the Counselor Parliament, but at first this did not imply that a successor would necessarily also be summoned to subsequent Parliaments. The more important would probably be summoned, but by the reign of Edward III it became usual for successors to receive writs as a matter of course. Thus the Baronage emerged into a hereditary dignity of the Peerage.                                                                                                                                    The first baron created by patent was John Beauchamp de Holt, created Baron Kidderminster, by Richard III in 1387 but baronies by writ also continued to be created long after this date.                                                                  

Lord of the Manor

The Lord of the Manor is one of the oldest feudal titles in England and still in continuous use. In English society, the Lordship of the Manor is a Lordship originating in the feudal system of manorialism. In modern England and Wales it is recognised as a form of property.                                                                                              Historically a Lord of the Manor might be a tenant-in-chief if he held a capital manor directly from the Crown; otherwise he was a mesne Lord if he did not hold directly from the Crown, yet had his own tenants. The origins of the Lordship of Manors arose in the Anglo-saxon system of manorialism. Following the Norman conquest, land at the manorial level was recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086. The title cannot be subdivided. This has been prohibited since 1290 in the Statute of Quia Emptores that prevents tenants from alienating their lands to others by subinfeudation, instead requiring all tenants wishing to alienate their land to do so by substitution.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

Lord Denning, in Corpus Christi College Oxford v Gloucestershire County Council [1983] QB360, described the manor thus:                      

“In mediæval times the manor was the nucleus  of English rural life. It was an administrative unit of an extensive area of  land. The whole of it was owned originally by the Lord of the Manor. He lived  in the big house called the manor house. Attached to it were many acres of  grassland and woodlands called the park. These were the “demesne lands” which  were for the personal use of the Lord of the Manor. Dotted all round were the  enclosed homes and land occupied by the “tenants of the manor”.       


"The Lord of the Manor and his household" Photograph c. 1890

                         Feudal Lordships, Baronies and Earldoms past and present      

Feudal and manorial Lordships, Baronies and Earldoms, hereinafter referred to as Lordship(s), exist today in English custom law as well as in English property law as 'estates in land'. They are part of the feudal history of England dating back to King William I. 1066 or pre-date the Norman conquest. The feudal titles derive from the King.                                                                                   Their origins are to this very day closely related to the British monarchy, even though they are not titles of nobiliy as in the peerage. Feudal Lords, Barons and Earls are quiet rightly called Lord, Baron or Earl, but they are not the same as the Lords, Barons and Earls of the peerage, the members of the House of Lords or upper house of the parliament. Immediately after the battle of Hastings in 1066, the Normans and their followers replaced the Anglo-Saxons as leading class. King William or William the Conqueror divided the entire land into Manors and granted it to his Barons. The nobility became a cultural part of England. Occassionally the Barons were summoned by the King to the Royal Council to advise him. In the 13th century this was the predecessor of the House of Lords. Only a nobleman could hold a manor, at later times a commoner could also own a manor.                                                                                                                                                            Today, manorial Lords are considered as relicts of the Norman nobility, though not in the sense of British peerage titles as already mentioned before. The following quotation about Lords of the Manor from the English historian and lawyer Frederic William Maitland characterises nobility in the proper sense.                                                                                                                                                                           

F. W. Maitland, LL.D., characterised manorial Lords in his book The Constitutional History of England from 1908 thus:  

"Dark as is the early history of the manor, we can see that before the Conquest England is covered by what in all substantial points are manors, though the term manor is brought hither by the Normans. Furthermore, in the interests of peace and justice, the state insists that every landless man shall have a lord, who will produce him in court in case he be accused. Slowly the relation of man and lord extends itself, and everywhere it is connected with land. The king’s thanes then are coming to be the king’s military tenants in chief." 

                                                                                                                                                                  Historically the feudal Lord has carried with it a bundle of rights over land within the manor, even over land that was in the hands of tenants and common land. Lordship rights varied from Lord to Lord, some of these were included in the grant of the Lordship such as the right of corporal and capital punishment or the 'Right of Gallows' and 'Right of Stocks'. Another important grant of right would be to hold a market within the manor. Other privileges have included the right to hunt wild animals on the wastes of the manor - common land - and the right to wild fish. The Lord could demand payment from people fishing in rivers and lakes within his manor - common land.

A Manor/Lordship always came in three parts:                                                                                               1. Land,                                                                                                                                                                      2. Rights over the Land,                                                                                                                                         3. Lordship - power to collect fealty {services} and taxes.

To convey all three rights they had to be specifically listed in the deeds of transfer. Titles became separate from the physical land in 1922. Officially a manorial or feudal Lordship title is “a property without body”.                                                                                                                                  The Abolition of Tenures Act 1660 - Barons and Lords until this time could either be required to pay money or provide a service (frankalmoign) to the Crown. This Act of Parliament removed the requirement of providing service (tenures) and converted all of the services into payments of money. This Act did not abolish feudal titles, they becoming Baronies in so-called free socage. Lordships, Baronies and Earldoms were granted by the Crown and were not given termination dates, so they will continue for evermore and can not be extinguished. English Baronies and Lordships ceased to be granted several hundred years ago, however by their very nature they cannot be abolished or extinguished whether a legal owner is in possession or not, the title still exists. The creation of new feudal and manorial rights ceased over 700 years ago. The rights that were created prior to that time had no expiry date and the Crown or Parliament has never passed a law that takes the rights that were in private hands back to the Crown or British government. Every title created still exists, whether there is an owner or not.                                                       There is an existing legal right to (re-) create (also restore or reconstruct) the original manorial and feudal titles, which are provable dormant for legal conveyance. This is confirmed by UK registered solicitors. Therefore based on this legal right, these very old English titles which are provably dormant and not in the possession of another individual or institution, can be continuing lawfully created by legal process, aquired and conveyed.                                                                           A feudal Lordship title itself can be separated from the physical property just as any other right can. As this a Lordship title is classified in law as an incorporeal hereditament. Incorporeal means having no physical presence (see, touch or smell). Hereditament means inheritable, a Lordship title can be inherited to the next generation (meaning the right continues forever more).                    Already explained in detail before, genuine titles from the manorial and feudal system can be conveyed upon acquisition and are hereditary. As they are incorporated into English property law they can be bought and sold, just like a house can be bought and sold. In addition, they are the only titles that can be purchased. These titles are nonetheless historic artifacts and protected in the 1922 Law of Property Act.


   "... the only Lords of any importance at the present day are Lords of the Manors".                                                   William Jowitt, 1st Earl Jowitt: Dictionary of English Law, 1959.                  


Titles from the Manorial and Feudal System can be owned by anyone, irrespective of nationality. With the aquisition and conveyance of a Lordship, the new owner inherits the rank and the status of a feudal Lord, even some become involved in the local community. Whilst at the same time he becomes the successor in title in line with often eminent historical figures which have essentially infuenced the history of Britain. Therewith the holder of a Lordship is a custodian of the title and its history in trust for future generations.  



                                                        Usage of a Lordship of the Manor or Feudal Barony Title           

How to refer to a holder of a Lordship and his title is not so much a matter of English Law, as a matter of taste and etiquette.  Good manners and respect for history and the Lordship title would suggest that using the title in the correct way generates respect for the Lord and his Manor.

Lordship of the Manor of X

How to refer to the Lordship title

(The) Lordship of the Manor of X
(The) Lordship of X 

The holder of a manorial Lordship can be addressed as follows:

Personal Name, Lord/Lady of the Manor of X
Personal Name, Lord/Lady of X
Lord/Lady of X
Lord/Lady X

Barony of X      

How to refer to the Barony title

(The) Barony of X 

The holder of a Barony can be adressed as follows:

Baron/Baroness Personal Name of X
Personal Name, Baron/Baroness of X
Personal Name, Lord/Lady of X
Baron/Baroness of X
Lord/Lady of X
Lord/Lady X


These address code rules hold good for English manorial Lordships and feudal Baronies. Because so many variations in feudal titles are accepted, it is helpful when the style preferred by the holder of a Barony or Lordship is printed at the head of stationery, on correspondence or business cards.   In Britain it's further possible to add Lordship titles to passports and driving licence. The Government has published a guide how titles can be included in passports.      


                                                                     IMPORTANT ADVICE        

                                 to Legal Aquisition, Transfer & Registation of Feudal Titles


Legal Aquisition                                                                                                                                              The aquisition of a genuine manorial or feudal title is a serious transaction and requires correctly executed legal documentation.                                                                                                               Feudal Lordship titles can be lawful created (possibly also specified as re-created, restored or reconstructed) and transferred by legal process. UK Registered Solicitor(s) (SRA) should verifying the process and the compliance of the legal requirements of legal rights to the creation of each title.

Alleged Lordship titles based e.g. on adverse possession, registration as (international) trademark, a 'square foot of land' (also called 'souvenir plots') or even so-called self-styled Lordships, are IN NO CASE genuine and legal titles and DO NOT enable the ownership of a Lordship title. These titles whichever are NOT genuine, thus unlawfull!           

Also a feudal Lordship title is UNIQUE - there can only be ONE LEGAL OWNER of a title at one and the same time.                                       

Statutory Declarations                                                                                                                          After the latest court ca  ses (2010/2012), the 'Root of Title' or the ownership of a Lordship CANNOT be proven by a signed Statutory Declaration by the last known purported owner!       A Statutory Declaration proves not that a vendor is the owner of a manorial Lordship, but rather that he probably does not. Also Court Rolls, sworn statements, partial deeds or a family 'interest' DO NOT prove ownership of a Lordship or Barony. They CANNOT be relied upon as an alternative, they are NOT an acceptable replacement in law for missing or incorrectly executed deeds. An independent legal report by expert Barrister Mr Paul Stafford clearly explains the law regarding ownership of a Lordship, ownership CAN ONLY be proven by a complete, correctly excecuted and consecutive chain of deeds from time of grant or Time Immemorial, 3rd September 1189, which are exceptionally rare. Without the complete set of Lordship deeds, as proof of ownership, it is impossible to prove ownership but also who is the real owner.                                                                                                                                                           Court case Beaumont v Jeffery 1925; confirmed there was no requirement for the Lord of the Manor to retain manorial records. This was overturned by amending legislation added to the Law of Property Act 1922. This does mean though that many manorial records were lost or had been destroyed.                                                                                                                                           Whilst most Lordships have lost their proof of ownership (with a complete, correctly executed and consecutive set of deeds) and therefore their rightful 'owners'. But a specialist in this field has the exclusive rights to legalise the use of Lordship titles, so that they can continue to be part of our living history.                    

The Abolition of Tenures Act 1660                                                                                                                    The fact is that this act from 1660 DID NOT ABOLISH English feudal titles, as often purported on websites or by people which claim to clarify the legality of feudal Baron and Lordship titles. The clue is in the name, it merely removed tenures (paying tax or rent in service (knight service) and not money). Under this Act many Baronies by tenure were converted into Baronies by writ, the rest ceased to exist as feudal Baronies by tenure, becoming Baronies in free socage, that is to say under a "free" (hereditable) contract requiring payment of monetary rents. Thus Baronies could no longer be held by military service.                                                                                                                               The operator of such dubious websites have NOT EITHER experience NOR the slightest knowledge about manorial law, English custom law or English property law. English custom law (statute law and common law) and English property law are very complicated and mostly relate to precedencial cases which are often not to find out so easily. Simply said these website owners are NOT to be able to accept the legal facts and do NOT telling the truth. There are a few wannabe enlightener and wiseacres in this field, which lean on rumors and not on fundamental legal facts. These people only insists to false pretences and not more!!! These supposed undeceiving people don't know nothing at all!                                                                                                                                                               English feudal titles which are for instance provably dormant and not in use, CAN be continuing lawfully (re-) created, sold, aquired and re-assigned.                                                                      Here are some examples of ENGLISH feudal Baronies which also have been sold even in years past: the Barony of Gilsland, Lincolnshire (1993), the Barony of Kendal, in the English historic county of Westmorland (now Cumbria), the Barony of Pencelli Castle (2003), the Barony of Langley, Tynedale, Northumberland (2006) or so the Barony of Eye, Suffolk (2007). All these mentioned and several more were sold, despite the allegations The Abolition of Tenures Act 1660 abolished English feudal titles?! Also an enormously remarkable article, isn't it?                                      Once again in conclusion: the fact is that English feudal Baronies are NOT abolished and can be rightful created (restored/reconstructed) by legal process, aquired and conveyed in the same way as manorial Lordships.       

 Caution notice to several allegedly enlightening websites and websites in the social media networks                                                                                                                                                       Beware of advices and comments on websites or in the social media networks of alleged serious heraldic or manorial societies e.g. The International Heraldry Society. Their owner or members (some of them are also manorial Lords who are bearers of a coat of arms) are sometimes not reliable and do not always telling the truth, they mean to be right. Mostly they have absolutely no knowledge about manorial law or English custom law. Some people believe as a member of any society, whether heraldic or manorial, they are outstandingly persons and they are only be right. Some of these seems to lack the behaviour and the manner of a Gentleman or Lord and do not act very honourable. They use this as a platform to talk negatively about others and to boast about themselves. The allegedly honorable proprietors of this society (or any other), their website and facebook site and even some of their members are participated in the denigration and defamation of other feudal Lords. Really not very honorable, thus appears in a rather dubious light.                                                                                                                                                  The main thing is to be a member of any society. But that doesn't make you a Lord at all, also not as bearer of a coat of arms.                                                                                                   Membership of any club or society doesn't make you a Lord. It isn't necessary to be a member in any club or society to be a Lord. Membership doesn't prove you're actually a Lord, nor that you hold a family coat of arms.                                                                                                                         Also a few people hang out in these groups purport to have real titles or adorn oneself with fantasy or self styled titles. Detailed internet research reveals these are fakes which have nothing to do with genuine titles. Some have bought their titles based on Statutory Declaration, as already mentioned before, this document doesn't prove ownership of a Lordship. Accordingly, only with great attention is to assume advice, opinions and comments from previously mentioned societies in social media networks and their public groups. Attention also to self-styled enlightener with their dubious websites filled with false pretences.                                           Expert advice (with legal support), existing facts and a good common sense should be taken into consideration.

Title Registry                                                                                                                                             Currently exists NO independent, reliable and officially recognised Manorial Lordship and Barony Register or other so-called Register to record any feudal title in legal ownership entirely correct and truthfully. Any register which purports to be an official (National) Register in any form carries NO significance or authority in law.                                                                                                                      Since the Land Registry (as the only government agency) ceased registration of manorial titles in 2003, there is no longer the opportunity to record officially who owns which title.                      

Legal Notice published in The Gazette (formally The London Gazette)                                              The legal conveyance and ownership of a feudal or manorial title will be officially announced and recorded in The Gazette, the official journal of record of Her Majesty's Government. It operates under strict Government and Crown approval and consists largely of statutory notices. That implies that there are some legal requirements for the notice placer to advertise a notice in The Gazette. As an official public record, notices can ONLY be placed in The Gazette by REGISTERED AND VERIFIED persons acting in an official capacity, who have the authority to create an official record of fact.                                                                                                                                                                        A notice in The Gazette officially announces whether the title was granted or established by the Crown or legally created and tranferred by legal process and in this case who is the acting solicitor; see 'All notices' and 'Other Notices' of manorial Lordships and feudal Baronies.                                   At present, there is only one recognised and reliable title agent - supported by UK registered legal professionals - that publishes their created and conveyed titles in The Gazette.                                   The announcements of titles recorded in The Gazette can be seen as a kind of Who's Who of actually existing Lordships.

Important legal support by UK Registered Solicitors (SRA)                                                          Solicitors will in principle verify whether the selling company or person is the legal owner and does the owner have the legal right to sell the title at all. The legal professionals examine and confirm as well the legal assignability as the conveyance.

Solicitor's confirmation letter with proof of conveyance                                                                       This legal document (letter, statement or receipt) of an UK Registered Solicitor (SRA) to each title, CONFIRMS FULL LEGAL OWNERSHIP and PROVES THE AUTHENTICITY to the respective manorial/feudal title absolutely reliable.                                                                                                   Please note: An UK Registered Solicitor - SRA - will NEVER work against the law, because he risks to loose his licence!                


At this point it is to say that we have collected some important facts that need to be considered. There are many false claims, distortions of facts and untruths due to competitiveness, ignorance, enviousness and jealousy. Not quite lordly characteristics. Sometimes it's just lack of knowledge.                                                                                                                                                                                      

For all these foresaid reasons and detailed clarification, (legal) advice from renowned manorial experts/counsel supported by legal professionals specialised in manorial law, should be sought before any transaction of title transfer.                                                                                            Leading Experts in manorial law and in dealing with genuine manorial titles handle such transactions; London Counsels (Barristers) have been thoroughly reviewed the legality of rights to the Lordship and Barony titles and UK Registered Solicitors (SRA) confirming the authenticity with the rights to each title and the legal conveyance. In this way legal assigned manorial Lordships and feudal Baronies by deed of conveyance are generally accepted.  Trust only well-reputed title agent with legal support!              

                                                        Highly to recommend for laymen:  



A peerage title is a personal dignity which will pass, if it is not a life peerage, to the next legitimate descendant and can not be acquired. Hereditary peerage dignities can only be created through HM The Queen by writs of summons or by letters patent. Equally a life peerage can only be created or granted by the Queen on advice of Her Majesty's Government by letters patent. These members of nobility are custodians of parts of English history and responsible in the sense of leading politicians, as they have a seat in the House of Lords, the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.              

 A feudal title is a territorial dignity which passes as an incorporeal hereditament to the next legitimate descendant or can be acquired. Furthermore a Lordship Title Right is a right in law. A ‘right’ which cannot be seen or touched so can only exist when created by a legal process, whether that is a grant by the Crown or application of statute law and common law. An English Lordship title can be owned by anyone, irrespective of nationality. The holder of a manorial or feudal title is a responsible custodian of a part of English history and heritage, which can go back more than 1000 years. Therefore the feudal Lord holds his title in trust for future generations.             

Also the behaviour of a Lord towards other people should always be in accordance with his rank. He should follow a few virtues and act like a gentleman - responsible, tolerant and noble. These should be the supreme maxims, according to the French phrase 'Noblesse oblige'.